People Tags: Mobile Online Gambling Topics: People Strategy AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter Email Address NetEnt has today (Tuesday) appointed Therese Hillman as it new group chief executive with immediate effect. Hillman had served as chief financial officer at the company since January 2017 before taking on the chief executive role in an ‘acting’ capacity in March this year after the removal of Per Eriksson. Prior to joining NetEnt, Hillman was group chief executive of Gymgrossisten, a subsidiary of Qliro Group, and also spent time as a board member at Unibet. “It is with great enthusiasm, but also humility, that I am taking on the role as group CEO of NetEnt,” Hillman said. “I look forward to drive the development of the industry together with our customers and employees and to deliver the best player experiences. “This is how we can continue to create value for our customers, shareholders, players and employees.” Fredrik Erbing, chairman of the board at NetEnt, added: “Therese has a clear business focus and is an appreciated leader with great energy. “NetEnt is pioneering the online gaming industry and is taking the next step to be at the forefront of business focus and innovation. “With Therese’s abilities, we get the right person to lead the company in the next growth phase.”Related article: CEO Per Eriksson removed by NetEnt Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter 22nd May 2018 | By contenteditor NetEnt has today (Tuesday) appointed Therese Hillman as it new group chief executive with immediate effect NetEnt names Hillman as new group CEO
MCB Group Limited (MCBG.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Financial sector has released it’s 2008 annual report.For more information about MCB Group Limited (MCBG.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the MCB Group Limited (MCBG.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: MCB Group Limited (MCBG.mu) 2008 annual report.Company ProfileMCB Group Limited is a financial holdings company that, together with the several subsidiaries running under it, operates in three clusters; banking, non-banking financial and other investments. The non-banking financial sector is involved in factoring and leasing while the MCB Capital Markets Limited offers services such as corporate finance advisory, asset management, stockbroking, private equity and registry. The Group also assists micro and small entrepreneurs. The services offered by the company include, offers current, savings, and foreign currency accounts; fixed and term deposits; personal, educational, motor, green, and housing loans; term loans; and working capital finance, term funding¸ structured finance, private equity finance, and leasing services, as well as credit and prepaid cards. MCB Group Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! Image source: Getty Images. See all posts by Harvey Jones Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997” I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. Enter Your Email Address Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Never mind the quality, just look at that income. The collapse in the Royal Mail Group (LSE: RMG) share price has driven the yield to an eye-watering 15%, but don’t be fooled by that headline number, because it’s about to fall sharply.As Royal Mail’s problems mount, management is cutting the dividend from 25p to 14.33p in the year to 31 March. That’s yet another blow for loyal investors, although it is still forecast to yield a handsome 8.1% this year. Should you be tempted by this troubled enterprise?5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…The controversy surrounding Royal Mail’s privatisation in October 2013 seems an awful long time ago now. The complaint then was that the Government had massively undervalued the stock (and shortchanged the taxpayer), as the share price shot past its 330p initial pricing, to top 600p. Now it looks massively overvalued, trading at just 167p today.Right Royal disasterThis makes Royal Mail a terrific example of why you should heed the first part of billionaire investor Warren Buffett’s famous maxim, “be fearful when people are greedy,” and shun any stock where investors are getting over-excited or looking to make a quick buck. So should you now follow the second part of the saying, and be “greedy when people are fearful”? Investors are certainly fearful of Royal Mail right now. Its share price has fallen a whopping 40% in the last 12 months, and trades 70% down on two years ago.There is some good news out there. This month’s trading update showed the company on course for group operating profit of between £300m and £340m for 2019/20 (before the impact of IFRS 16 accounting changes).However, the share price still plunged as management warned of “challenging” times ahead, with letter volumes set to fall faster than expected, while its UK parcels and letters business is heading for a loss, amid the uncertain business environment.Tough marketThe Communication Workers Union (CWU) is now threatening the first national postal strike in a decade. This would be bad news for Royal Mail, and good news for rival companies in the crowded courier market as those rivals will pick up any dissatisfied customers. Competition from Amazon Logistics will also strike fear into many.Even more worryingly, Royal Mail’s net debt has soared from £470m to £1.37bn, while broker Liberum has added to the misery by warning that its transformation strategy may be undeliverable, as margins are squeezed by poor productivity and declining revenues from letters.Brave contrarians may be tempted by today’s valuation of just 5.5 times earnings. However, that is expected to jump to 17.4 times this year, due to a forecast 31% drop in earnings this year, followed by another 46% fall next.The earnings outlook for 2022 is brighter, but I’ve heard enough. Management faces a long-term battle, and there are dozens of stocks I’d buy ahead of Royal Mail right now. Harvey Jones has no position in any of the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Royal Mail Group’s 8.1% yield looks unmissable. Here’s what I’d do today Harvey Jones | Wednesday, 26th February, 2020 | More on: RMG
Scottish Episcopal Church votes against adopting Anglican Covenant Peter Meyers says: AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis June 10, 2012 at 8:51 pm In response to Robert Graves I would say that the only badge that I wear is one that acknowledges that I know far less about the relationship of one person to the next than does God. Rector Shreveport, LA June 21, 2012 at 4:35 pm I feel that the proposed covenant is misguided at best. Whatever the intention if adopted it will be used as a foundation to begin to ape the worst of Roman legalism and be used to classify and bully. A more meaningful approach would be to make use of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a measure of our practical and common commitment in Christ to the welfare of those whom Christ loves both within our Communion and in the world. After all the UDHR has been repeatedly affirmed at Lambeth since its inception so it could easily become the metric for our determination to be one body. Rector Bath, NC The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group June 13, 2012 at 3:56 pm Somewhere along the way, I received a “Litany for the Churches”. According to the copy given to me, this litany was shared through ecumenical community services in Hartwell, GA in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The Litany opens with:LEADER: Let us give thanks for the churches that together form Christ’s world-wide church.PEOPLE: There is One Body and one Spirit, one Lord, one Faith, one Baptism.Among other things, the Litany thanks God for the Roman Catholic Church’s stirring pageantry, for Baptists’ insistence on the freedom of the Holy Spirit, and the Friends’ commitment to non-violence. It also thanks God for the Episcopal Church and Anglican Communion:LEADER: We thank you for the Anglican and Episcopal Churches.PEOPLE: For their inclusiveness, their flexibility, their unfaltering commitment to reconciliation and reunion.In the not too distant past, the most unique and defining aspect of the Anglican Communion (including the Episcopal Church) was its inclusiveness, flexibility, and “unfaltering commitment to reconciliation and reunion”. That’s why the author of this litany, Rev. Harry Hannah, chose to celebrate this characteristic above all others. My prayer is that we all remember this spiritual DNA that God has gifted us with as we seek His will for the future of our church. June 9, 2012 at 1:00 am Why need we all agree about this Covenant? The original Quadrilateral had few requirements for membership and a lot of room for different expressions of practicing Christianity. I don’t believe that unity needs to be defined as uniformity. In our daily following of Jesus Christ there is more that we have in common than that we disagree on. Ruth Franke says: Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Robert Graves says: Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY The Rev. John Crist says: Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Comments (11) Virtual Episcopal Latino Ministry Competency Course Online Course Aug. 9-13 Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET June 10, 2012 at 8:17 pm I agree wholeheartedly with Peter Meyers: “Can we not look at sisters and brothers in Christ and trust that God is working in their lives as God is in ours, even though we have different opinions, at least for now.” The Anglican Communion has survived many tests and controversies since the first Lambeth Conference precisely because we have been a big tent which tolerates diversity. I see the current draft of the Covenant as an undesirable effort to circumscribe that diversity.I also think it is important to remember that Church of England leaders in the 16th and 17th Centuries fought very hard against the idea that Church bodies are “infallible.” Neither the Bishop of Rome nor the Anglican Consultative Council can make infallible doctrinal statements! An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Ruth Franke says: Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Rector Martinsville, VA Director of Music Morristown, NJ Submit a Press Release Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Anglican Covenant July 15, 2012 at 4:08 pm I was baptized a Christian at the age of 4.5 years old in the Episcopal Church in what was then the Missionary Diocese of the San Joaquin in California. (an irony since that diocese went through so much turmoil) At the age of 7, I joined the Girls Friendly Society. The motto of GFS is “Bear Ye One Another’s Burdens” We had a candlelight service where we all stood in a circle and we passed the light. As we turned to the girl next to us to share the lit candle, we said “I bear your burdens and I share your light.” Then each of would turn to the next and it would be repeated till the whole circle was in light. Over the years in GFS, I met girls from all over the USA and from other countries and we shared with each other the light of Christ in each of us. In all of this conversation that is occurring about the Anglican Covenant, may we remember that each of us carries the light of Christ. May we honor it; may we respect it. It is the common ground of Jesus’ love that we all share. He died for all of us. May we in turn reach out and be Jesus’ presence of love. Whenever I find myself in a space of righteous indignation or judgment, I remember Mark 10:21 and before Jesus replied to the rich young man, Jesus “looked at him and loved him.” (knowing full well what the rich young man’s response was going to be.) May we be able to let ourselves diminish so that the Christ in each of us can increase and look with love on all those whom we meet and with whom we worship and interact on a daily basis.Your sister-in-Christ Emily Nell Lagerquist Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR June 12, 2012 at 10:11 am This morning I was listening to some contemporary Christian music and a song came on that specifically addressed our need to be in relationship even with our differences – To respond to Jesus prayer “that they all may be one” by gathering together under the umbrella of faith in God in Christ Jesus. I thought of ‘us’ and prayed that the Episcopal Church, the Anglican Communion, could continue in it’s mission of inviting everyone into the knowledge of Christ’s love, setting aside our differences, growing into our commonalities, and remembering that the God we serve is too big to be put in a box that would leave anyone out. Let’s continue the conversations about our differences – all of them – in that respect and love and faith that can truly make us all one. Submit an Event Listing The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Anne Warrington Wilson says: In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Paul Garrett says: Featured Events Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC June 12, 2012 at 10:02 am AMEN! June 9, 2012 at 8:42 am The Anglican Communion isn’t the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. The Anglican Communion is a human construct. As such, it has – and will always have – limitations and defects. To one degree or another, the Anglican Communion will always disappoint.Like any organization that seeks to survive and thrive, the Anglican Communion must clearly define its beliefs, purpose, focus, values, and priorities, as well as the expectations of the provinces that comprise it. Anything goes isn’t an option.Let’s put it this way: The Episcopal Church of the USA will welcome you. But will you accept the Episcopal Church of the USA and its basic beliefs, purpose, focus, values, and priorities, as largely defined by the Anglican Communion, of which the Epicopal Church of the USA is but one body? Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Rector Knoxville, TN Press Release Service Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Episcopal Church releases new prayer book translations into Spanish and French, solicits feedback Episcopal Church Office of Public Affairs Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Anglican Communion, Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Associate Rector Columbus, GA Featured Jobs & Calls [Episcopal News Service] The General Synod of the Scottish Episcopal Church on June 8 voted against the adoption of the Anglican Covenant, a document which supporters say offers a way to bind Anglicans globally across cultural and theological differences.The Scottish synod was asked to vote on a motion to agree in principle to adopting the Anglican Covenant. The motion was voted down by 112 to 6 votes, with 13 abstentions.“Our decision not to adopt the Anglican Covenant is not a decision to reject the Anglican Communion,” the Most Rev. David Chillingworth, primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church, told synod following the vote.“Nor are we indifferent to deeply held differences of view which are held across the Communion,” he added. “For those differences are also present in this church and they are part of our daily life and relationships. We hold a range of views. They are expressed with integrity, listened to with care and we are committed to living creatively with our diversity.”The decision comes three months after it became clear that Scotland’s neighbors to the south in the Church of England could not adopt the covenant in its current form after a majority of its dioceses voted the document down. The Church of England’s General Synod cannot consider the covenant again until 2015.The Anglican Covenant first was proposed in the 2004 Windsor Report as a way that the communion and its 38 autonomous provinces might maintain unity despite differences, especially relating to biblical interpretation and human sexuality issues. The report came in the wake of the 2003 election of Gene Robinson, an openly gay priest, as bishop of New Hampshire, a development that caused some provinces to declare broken or impaired communion with the U.S.-based Episcopal Church.The covenant also was a response to some church leaders crossing borders into other provinces to minister to disaffected Anglicans and a decision by the Diocese of New Westminster in the Anglican Church of Canada to authorize a public rite to bless same-gender unions.Following five years of discussion and several draft versions, the final text of the covenant was sent in December 2009 to the communion’s provinces for formal consideration.The document’s fourth section, which outlines a disciplinary method for resolving disputes in the communion, has largely been the covenant’s sticking point. Some critics have warned that adopting the covenant could result in a two-tier communion.“Our decision not to adopt the Anglican Covenant says that we think that this was not the right way,” Chillingworth said. “We needed to recognize that what brings division and difficulty to our life as a communion is a number of inter-related issues, not just one – not just the single complex of issues around human sexuality.”The Episcopal Church’s General Convention will consider its response to the covenant when it meets July 5-12 in Indianapolis, Indiana. At present, seven resolutions have been proposed to convention, each calling for different responses to the proposed covenant.Throughout the Anglican Communion, the seven provinces that have approved or subscribed to the Anglican Covenant are Ireland, Mexico, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, South East Asia, Southern Cone of America, and the West Indies.The Anglican Church of Southern Africa has adopted the document pending ratification at its next synod meeting later this year.The Church in Wales in April gave the covenant “an amber light, rather than a green light.” The church’s governing body said it feared the recent rejection of the covenant by the Church of England jeopardized its future and clarifications about that were now needed before a decision could be made. It sent questions on the matter to the Anglican Consultative Council, the communion’s main policy-making body, which meets later this year.Episcopal Church in the Philippines bishops have formally rejected the covenant although the Anglican Communion Office confirmed that it has not yet received a formal notification from that province. Maori action in the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia rejecting the covenant last November means that it may be rejected when it comes before the province’s General Synod in July.The Anglican Communion’s Standing Committee agreed at its recent meeting that “no timeframe should yet be introduced for the process of adoption of the covenant by provinces,” according to a release from the Anglican Communion Office. TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Submit a Job Listing Rector Washington, DC Cathedral Dean Boise, ID June 8, 2012 at 9:43 pm Any of the 38 autonomous provinces that comprise the Anglican Communion, which refuse to accept the Anglican Covenant as intended, understood, and written, should be designated Non-Conforming Provinces within the Anglican Communion. Clergy – including bishops and primates – within the non-conforming provinces should be designated Non-Conforming Clergy. Communicants within non-conforming provinces should be designated Non-Conformists.Those who feel so strongly about rejecting the Anglican Covenant will wear their designations as badges of superior understanding, sohistication, sensitivity, and moral authority. Rector Pittsburgh, PA Rector Tampa, FL thomas mauro says: June 9, 2012 at 5:09 am The Emperor Constantine called the Council of Nicea, not because he was a pious man who cared deeply about the Christian church, but because he was sick and tired of the constant bickering between and among different factions of Christians. The Council achieved a number of good things, among them agreement as to the nature of Jesus Christ and His relationship to the Father, the Nicene Creed, and the naming of Mary the mother of Jesus as the Theotokos, the Mother of God; and for a time, as least, an end to the squabbling that so annoyed the Emperor.The peace was not to last. For all the earnestness of Jesus’ prayer that “all may be one,” pride, stubbornness, deceit, lust for power, dirty politics, and perhaps here and there a touch of unmedicated insanity fractured the Body of Christ, and Christianity ultimately split into many factions.The Anglican Communion is at a crossroads. Either we do the expected thing and further split into ever smaller and less and less significant pieces or we say, “Enough! The splintering stops with this generation.” Can we not find a way in humility and in agape love to celebrate our diversity, so that when a friend or a stranger feels rejected by one denomination or another, we can say, “The Episcopal Church welcomes you! We’re a big tent, big enough to include you in the fellowship of the Holy Spirit. We don’t expect you to check your brain at the door.” Can we not look at sisters and brothers in Christ and trust that God is working in their lives as God is in ours, even though we have different opinions, at least for now. United is the way Jesus wants us, and when united then, truly, we will know in no small measure that peace that is beyond our understanding.” Rector Belleville, IL Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Comments are closed. Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Rector Collierville, TN Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Rector Albany, NY Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL By ENS staffPosted Jun 8, 2012 Rector Smithfield, NC Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Alecia Moroz says: Curate Diocese of Nebraska Rector Hopkinsville, KY Emily Nell Lagerquist says: Robert Graves says: Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Youth Minister Lorton, VA An Evening with Aliya Cycon Playing the Oud Lancaster, PA (and streaming online) July 3 @ 7 p.m. ET Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Tags Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME
Home Indiana Agriculture News Indiana Agriculture Photo Contest Submissions Being Accepted Previous article89th Indiana FFA Convention a Week Away; A Preview on the HAT Monday Morning EditionNext articleHouse Farm Bill Still Uncertain Hoosier Ag Today Facebook Twitter Facebook Twitter Indiana Agriculture Photo Contest Submissions Being Accepted The Indiana State Department of Agriculture is accepting submissions for the 11th annual Indiana Agriculture photo contest, which showcases the hard work and contributions made by Hoosier farmers. The contest is open to the general public, and the winners will be honored during a special ceremony at the Indiana State Fair.Contestants are able to submit up to five photos in digital format (horizontal or vertical), and each photo must be accompanied by an entry form. All photos must be taken in the state by Indiana residents. Entries must be submitted no later than June 30, 2018.Participants are encouraged to submit photos reflecting the wide array of agriculture. The categories photos can be entered under are:On the Farm: Showcasing any building, piece of equipment or activity that is a part of life on an Indiana farm.Faces of Agriculture: Featuring those who grow and produce food, fuel and fiber in Indiana.Agritourism: Spotlighting Indiana’s seasonal and agricultural destinations, such as orchards, wineries and farmers markets.Conservation: Highlighting Indiana’s natural beauty with landscapes, water and wildlife.Contest winners will have their photographs featured in the Offices of the Lt. Governor’s Family of Business in Indianapolis. Winners will also be special guests during the Celebration of Agriculture on Thursday, Aug. 16, 2018, from 3:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. in the Normandy Barn at the Indiana State Fair.For entry and release forms, guidelines and criteria, visit www.in.gov/isda/2468.htm. SHARE SHARE By Hoosier Ag Today – Jun 11, 2018
Linkedin IDA boss, Enda McLoughlin, says the Mid West evolution will continue WhatsApp Egg-cellent fun at Bunratty Castle and King Johns castle this Easter! Previous articleCompetition winnerNext articleWin cinema tickets Staff Reporterhttp://www.limerickpost.ie Limerick responding to its FDI potential Advertisement Dr Orlaith BorthwickA NEW multi-layered recruitment campaign to meet the unprecedented flow of job creation into the region has been launched this week.With 3,000 jobs to fill over the next three years in technology and engineering alone, a forum led by the Mid West Regional Skills and the IDA has taken the first steps towards ensuring the required skills are available to FDI and indigenous companies embarking on major recruitment drives in the region.At its first forum gathering, Orlaith Borthwick, manager of Mid West Regional Skills said that the region has to act promptly to avoid any skills shortage down the road.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up “We are taking a ‘stitch in time’ approach here because of the rate of skilled jobs being created here. Thankfully there’s no sign of it relenting but we must put measures in place now to ensure we attract sufficient skills here to fill all these posts.“Right now we see it as an opportunity but it could very quickly become a difficult challenge if we don’t put measures in place. Our first gathering was all about exploring what those measures will be but they will be multi-faceted. We are forward planning to make sure we have that skills pipeline,” she said.“We need to target people from the other Irish regions, particularly Dublin, who are fed up of spending hours daily in cars or the cost of living. There are opportunities in this region, there’s a quality of life in this region and it’s an affordable and exciting place to live.“What we will be saying to people who emigrated as they come home this Christmas is that this could be their last time returning to Ireland. They can now stay and get an exciting job in fast paced industries. They don’t now need to get on a plane after Christmas and head back out to the UK, US, Australia or elsewhere.”IDA Mid-West Regional Manager Niall O’Callaghan said that the unique industry-third level partnership in the region will help bolster it against any skills shortage. “Over the last 18 months we have had the most significant period of investment into the Mid-West region from an IDA Ireland perspective. We have bene hugely successful in not only increasing the numbers of investment from new companies coming into the region but also our existing client company base,” he said.“Foreign direct investment is an international competition and a lot of cities and regions will tell you they work closely with third level institutes and universities. But what’s unique in this region, we firmly believe, is the cohesiveness between UL, LIT and industry. We are seeing that with this forum, where all are represented in the room, communicating their needs and ensuring they are met so that we have the skills we require to satisfy the skills needs ahead.”Optel Vision, is recruiting up to 150 people over the next two years, and they say that the forum will be hugely beneficial in terms of the sharing of information and experience around recruitment programmes. “It is important to have this forum to determine what the skills requirements are and how we develop them with the educational organisations or any of the training forums available,” said Timmy Hayes, HR Manager at Optel Vision, Limerick.John Gleeson, Project Manager Information Technology at General Motors said that “the opportunities are endless and the needs are huge. What we have to make sure is how we address this. What we are trying to do within this group is develop the skills and stay top of the class. We want to win as a region.” NewsMid West skills forum to meet job creation demandBy Staff Reporter – December 19, 2016 872 Facebook Email RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR MedTech sector can thrive in region – Cook Medical event told Print UL to lead in AI masters TAGSIDAjob creationMid West ForumNiall O’CallaghanOrlaith Borthwick Twitter Limerick leads the way with STEM alliance
ColumnsDoes The Traceability Requirement Meet The Puttaswamy Test? Kazim Rizvi & Shivam Singh15 March 2021 12:16 AMShare This – x1. Introduction Encryption technology has popularly been used for varied purposes including secure communication. This allows for individuals to communicate amongst each other without anyone else being able to monitor the content of such conversations. This, thus, keeps such conversations even outside the purview of Law Enforcement Agencies (‘LEAs’). This preserves the privacy…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?Login1. Introduction Encryption technology has popularly been used for varied purposes including secure communication. This allows for individuals to communicate amongst each other without anyone else being able to monitor the content of such conversations. This, thus, keeps such conversations even outside the purview of Law Enforcement Agencies (‘LEAs’). This preserves the privacy of the users and allows them to safely communicate without any threats of surveillance. However, this aspect of encryption technologies has also led to States, including India, seeking the introduction of ‘backdoors’ to this technology, particularly citing concerns of misinformation, child pornography, and national security. In the year 2020 itself, encryption has faced multiple challenges across the globe. They include the proposal of an Act to mandate encryption backdoors in the United States, opposition to the proposal from Facebook to introduce encryption in its Messenger service, and blocking of ProtonMail in Russia owing to concerns of misinformation. In India specifically, an ad hoc Rajya Sabha committee recommended undermining of encryption to fight child pornography, and the Indian government jointly signed a statement with six other States arguing safety risks of end-to-end encryption. In this debate, a particularly interesting feature that has influenced the discussions on encryption in India is the proposal to mandate traceability of messages sent on social media platforms. It is this proposal that we seek to analyze in this paper in the context of the right to privacy that has been recently accorded the status of a fundamental right in India. Accordingly, in the second section, we lay down the contours of the right to privacy and the test laid down by the Supreme Court in the Puttaswamy decision to determine its infringement. Then in the third section, we look at the encryption debate as it has developed in the Indian context. In the fourth section, we carry out the substantive analysis of the traceability proposal on the Puttaswamy test and argue that it does not satisfy the same. Finally, in conclusion, we briefly touch upon some of the alternatives to encryption backdoors that are currently in practice. 2. Privacy as a Fundamental Right: The Puttaswamy Test The question of whether privacy is a fundamental right first arose in 2015 before a three-judge bench of the Supreme Court. The Court was assessing the constitutional validity of the Aadhar ecosystem. Therein the learned Attorney General had argued that Part III of the Indian Constitution does not accord the right to privacy the status of a fundamental right despite case law to that effect, as larger benches of the Apex Court in M P Sharma 1954 SCR 1077 (8 judge bench) and Kharak Singh 1964 SCR 332 (6 judge bench) have ruled otherwise. Thereafter, the three-judge bench referred the matter to a five-judge bench to ensure “institutional integrity and judicial discipline”. Ultimately, the five-judge bench referred the constitutional question to an even larger bench of nine judges to pronounce authoritatively on the status of the right to privacy. This culminated in the decision in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India (2017) 10 SCC 1. The operative part of the judgment in Puttaswamy over-ruled the decisions in M P Sharma and Kharak Singh to the extent that they held the right to privacy was not protected by the Constitution. The nine-judge bench ruled that ‘right to privacy’ is an intrinsic part of right to life. Accordingly, it further held that the body of case law that developed subsequent to Kharak Singh, recognizing the right to privacy, enunciated the correct position of law. As the Puttaswamy decision rooted the right to privacy in Article 21 of the Constitution it can only be taken away through procedure established by law. The Supreme Court has already clarified in the Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978) 1 SCC 248 decision that this procedure has to be just, fair and reasonable. How does ‘due procedure’ among other standards of ‘judicial review’ will operate in cases where the state restricts the fundamental right to privacy, has also been explained in the Puttaswamy case through a four-fold test created on the basis of the observations made by Justices Chandrachud and Kaul. The four elements of the test are as follows: (i). Legitimate Aim stage: The court is required to check if there’s a legitimate aim to infringe upon the right to privacy. (ii). Suitability or rational nexus stage: This requires the court to examine if there is a rational connection between the infringement of the right and the purpose of the restriction. In other words, it has to be seen whether the measure is suitable for achieving the purpose of the restriction. (iii). Necessity stage: This is to test if there is a less restrictive or equally effective alternative means of achieving the goal in terms of restrictions on the right. (iv). Balancing stage: Herein, the benefit that the State gains by restricting the right has to be balanced with the impact of loss of the right. If any restriction fails to satisfy the above four-pronged test, then it would amount to a violation of Article 21. 3. The Indian Encryption Debate The Indian encryption debate has been moulded on the anvil of the Indian Telegraph Act. Section 5 of the Indian Telegraph Act empowers the government to lawfully intercept and monitor communication. Additionally, Section 84A of the Information Technology Act, 2000, (“IT Act, 2000”) was introduced through an amendment in 2008. It allowed the government to prescribe modes and methods for encryption to ensure secure use of the electronic medium and promote e-governance and e-commerce. Following a more prescriptive mandate of regulation, Section 69 of the IT Act, 2000, allowed the Central and State governments to monitor and collect information through any computer resource for cybersecurity. This is supplemented with the Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Interception, Monitoring and Decryption of Information) Rules, 2009. Its Rule 9 provides that an order for decryption could relate to any information sent to or from a ‘person or class of persons’ or relate to ‘any subject matter’. With the growing challenge of the proliferation of Child Sexual Abuse Material (‘CSAM’) online, several countries including India have been growing apprehensive about the increase in encryption technology making it difficult to trace pornographic content and catch CSAM criminals. It was in this atmosphere that the National Encryption Policy was formulated in 2015. Critics opined that it was more of a ‘decryption’ policy because it only allowed platforms to function if they complied with the mandatory regulatory mechanism. The policy was said to simply secure government access to encrypted data, rather than securing user data. The Draft Intermediary Guidelines of 2018 further rekindled this debate by proposing to mandate intermediaries to introduce traceability on their platforms. The new IT rules were finally notified by the Government on 25th February 2021 by notifying the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 (“IT Rules, 2021”) . In a bid to enforce traceability Rule 4(2) of the IT Rules 2021 lists out all the exceptions mentioned in Article 19 (2) of the Constitution. This is despite the extant criticism of the similar provision in the Draft IT Rules of 2018 from stakeholders across the ecosystem. The proposal to mandate traceability seeks to ensure that platforms introduce technological updates to ensure that the original sender of a particular message could be traced. While some argue that this could be carried out without undermining the end-to-end encryption that WhatsApp provides, the common opinion is that it is not technologically possible to introduce traceability without undermining encryption. Admittedly, the Supreme Court in the Puttaswamy judgment explained that the Government’s access to personal data for legitimate national security concerns is a reasonable restriction on right to privacy. However, the Apex Court also reiterated that such exceptions must be narrowly tailored and must meet the four-fold test prescribed in the decision, as discussed earlier. Accordingly, in the next section we shall analyze whether the traceability requirement satisfies this four-pronged test. 4. Examining Traceability on the Touchstone of Puttaswamy Legitimate Aim of the State in a Democratic Society With specific reference to backdoors on encryption, and legitimizing it based on the concerns of terrorism and prevention of crimes, the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression has stated that governments have not demonstrated that criminal or terrorist use of encryption serves as an insuperable barrier to law enforcement objectives. Moreover, it has been noted by the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, Frank LaRue that it is a matter of concern that vague and unspecified notions of national security, have been unduly used to justify interception and access to communications. The use of an amorphous concept of national security to justify invasive limitations on the enjoyment of human rights is of serious concern enjoyment. It is broadly defined and is thus vulnerable to manipulation by the State as a means of justifying actions that target vulnerable groups such as human rights defenders, activists, whistle blowers etc. Accordingly, in Canada and the US, the tests of “pressing and substantial objective” and “compelling government interest” respectively have been disregarded as they are insufficiently rigorous. In Klass and Ors v. Germany (1979) 2 EHRR 214, the European Court of Human Rights took note of the development of sophisticated forms of espionage and terrorism and ruled national security concerns are justified, only under exceptional circumstances. Given that undermining encryption is not possible on a case-to -case basis but is done en masse, the legitimacy of this action is in question. Suitability of the measure or rational nexus between the infringement of the right and the purpose for the restriction The purpose of introducing traceability as given by LEAs is that it would enable them to catch cyber criminals. However, the suitability of this measure to achieve the said objective is contestable given that studies suggest that creating backdoors does not stop criminals from using encryption. In fact, it makes it more difficult for the police to catch them. Encryption is a tool which is available online for anyone to download and use even if the government bans it. The knowledge required for building encrypted platforms is readily available in the public domain. Criminals already know how to write their own encryption codes. If a vulnerability or backdoor is created on popular encrypted platforms for the LEAs to use to track perpetrators then the savvy criminals will simply shift to another platform, possibly their own platform which is well encrypted. Websites like GitHub are a storehouse of open source software for creating encrypted platforms which can be used by non-state actors to develop their own encrypted platforms, the moment they get concerned about backdoors being introduced in popular messaging platforms. The Signal protocol which has one of the most enhanced end-to-end encrypted protocols with no known backdoors is also available on GitHub. Moreover, a software known as Mujahideen Secrets was developed by al-Qaeda way back in 2007 to encrypt their online communications. Likewise, following the Snowden leaks in 2013 on NSA surveillance, three different terrorist organisations including GIMF, The Al-Fajr Technical Committee, and ISIL, created their own unique encryption tools. Recently, The Global Encryption Coalition released a non-technical paper explaining why undermining encryption is in fact not at all a solution to terrorism or CSAM proliferation in the cyberspace, and how undermining encryption would create more problems than it seeks to resolve. It is equally noteworthy that if encryption is broken then users will have no guarantees of their data being safe due to the lack of a robust data protection regime in India. In order to emphasize the need for such a regime, the case study of the Minnesota Database queries is important. In Minnesota, more than 62% police officials were reported to use the surveillance capabilities of the State to surveil over their ex-wives and ex-girlfriends is an apt example of this threat. Hence, undermining encryption will only mean that the police, at best, will be able to catch the gullible and less technically adept criminals, while the smarter ones who are more dangerous perpetrators of the online vices will easily get away. Further, without adequate safeguards for data, it will indeed be a concerning issue for the citizens to trust institutions that collect and store their data. Necessity Stage: In order to satisfy this test, the government will have to prove that there is no other less restrictive way for the government to get the data for tracking CSAM and catching its proliferators than to break end-to-end encryption. Some might argue that because there is no other way to get the information about who the originator of the content was, traceability may just meet the proportionality test. However, there are a plethora of studies which establish that in most cases access to ‘content data’ is not required and the availability of metadata is sufficient. Moreover, as the Europol’s SIRIUS Digital Evidence Report explains, the tedious process of obtaining digital evidence via the Mutual Legal Assistance mechanism and the lack of standardization in company policies make it almost impossible to successfully process content data obtained from undermining encryption to achieve the desired result of tracking criminals. In any case, the justification and proof that the demand for traceability is indeed the least restrictive means available have to come from the State. This burden is something which the State has failed to meet till now. On the other hand, UNICEF has recently released a report explaining how encryption is crucial to ensure online child safety. Even the TRAI after two years of extensive consultation with leading stakeholders in the ecosystem, analysis of international jurisprudence and the discussions at the International Telecommunications Union opined that the encryption technology should not be tinkered with. It was observed in its report that if the encryption technology is broken then the platforms will not be able to provide the same level of security to the users who will be rendered vulnerable to cyberattacks and surveillance. Balancing Stage To meet this requirement, it needs to be proven that the balance between the right to privacy of the citizens and the government’s argument of national security to introduce traceability lies in the latter’s favour, allowing for the infringement of privacy. It is difficult to satisfy this test as privacy of the citizens is the foundational block of national security. The exercise to create this balance is rendered even more difficult in light of the fact that the argument of national security on the basis of which the LEAs try to justify the demand of backdoors is itself compromised due to weakened encryption. The Greek Watergate Scandal, popularly known as the “Athens Affair”, where the political and military elites of Athens were spied using a vulnerability introduced for lawful interception, is a perfect evidence of this fact. Accordingly, the introduction of traceability will make the platforms vulnerable to foreign surveillance and attacks by savvy criminals which will in turn threaten user safety and the privacy, eventually leading to a national security crisis in itself rather than solving the existing one. Compromising with encryption has ramifications for not just privacy of the citizens but also for the digital economy and critical information infrastructure of the nation. Online banking and e-commerce services can be rendered vulnerable due to weakened encryption leading to loss of consumer trust and harm to the competitiveness of the companies in the global market. High-end encryption technology protects not just users and businesses, but also Critical Information Infrastructures of the government like those of Aadhar and Aarogya Setu among others. In addition to these, undermining encryption will also have adverse effects for cross border data flow. Hence, the government’s demand for traceability to combat online challenges can certainly not be balanced against the ramifications of backdoors on a country’s socio-economic health in addition to its impact on the security and the fundamental right to privacy of the citizens. Summing Up In light of the above arguments, it is difficult to justify the demand to introduce traceability on encrypted platforms on the threshold of the four-fold test proposed in the Puttaswamy judgment. The Puttaswamy case also requires a case-by-case analysis to determine whether the intrusion is valid. However, undermining encryption would render the whole population susceptible to cyber-vulnerabilities. Thus, a blanket creation of a backdoor, i.e., an exploit within a secure platform, that compromises the privacy of all would be worrisome, and is certain to fail the test of Puttaswamy. This implies that there is a need to look at possible alternatives to remedy the problems that traceability seeks to resolve. A primary measure to this end should be strengthening LEA capabilities in metadata analysis which, as mentioned earlier, would enable them to carry out effective investigations. For misinformation in specific, a recent alternative that has been used is that of content moderation and the addition of filters regarding the veracity of the information by social media platforms such as Twitter. This solution, however, has also left a lot to be desired in implementing it on scale or tackling the existing COVID-19 pandemic that has impacted the already limited availability of content moderatorsViews are PersonalNext Story
amphotora/iStock(MISSION, Texas) — A police officer died Thursday night after being shot in the line of duty in Mission, Texas.The unnamed officer, a member of the Mission Police Department, was shot when he was “waved down for a suspect with a weapon,” city officials said. The officer was in critical condition when he was taken to a local hospital, where he was pronounced dead.“We’re devastated,” the City of Mission wrote on Twitter late Thursday night. “He gave his life protecting us. There are no words to explain how heartbroken we are as a community.”An investigation into the fatal shooting is underway, and a suspect is in custody, according to ABC affiliate KRGV-TV in Weslaco, Texas.The police department and city officials have scheduled a press conference on the matter for Friday morning at 10 a.m. local time.“It is a sad day in Mission. Tonight we lost one of our own,” Mission Mayor Armando O’Cana wrote on Twitter. “Our hearts are with the officer’s family.”Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
KABC(LOS ANGELES) — A sniper located in an apartment building in Los Angeles County opened fire on a sheriff’s deputy just outside his station house on Wednesday afternoon.The deputy, identified as 21-year-old Angel Reinosa, was shot in his bulletproof vest in the parking lot of the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Lancaster station by someone in the apartment building across the street, which is a government-subsidized facility.The shooting took place in Lancaster, about an hour north of downtown Los Angeles, at about 2:45 p.m. local time.“Think about what happened here — a sniper took out one of our deputies,” Lancaster Mayor R. Rex Parris said at a press conference. “And the only reason that deputy is alive is because he had his vest on.”“He was getting ready to take that vest off,” he added. “Had he done so, it would’ve been a much more tragic situation.”The suspect is still on the loose, authorities said early Thursday. Sheriff’s deputies cleared the apartment building overnight and did not find the person. The suspect has not been named, and it is unclear if they are a resident of the building.Reinosa has been treated and released from the hospital and there was no puncture wound.He has been with the sheriff’s office for about a year and at the Lancaster station for just three months, authorities said.Sgt. Benjamin Grubb, in the L.A. County Sheriff’s Department Information Bureau, called the shooting a “contemptible assault.”Parris was critical of a mental health facility, Mental Health America of Los Angeles, that shares a parking lot with the apartment building, however, the apartments provide housing for a variety of low- and middle-income residents and those who were formerly homeless, according to the Los Angeles Times.“It’s not just a four-story apartment building, it’s a four-story apartment building that is government subsidized for mentally ill people,” Parris said. “I mean, let’s call it what it is. Why do you put mentally ill people in a four-story apartment building across from the sheriff’s department?”A spokesperson for the facility told Los Angeles ABC station KABC that the mental health facility is in the same complex, but separate from the apartments, which are not specifically for patients.“They let people live in our apartment complex who have mental illness,” Terrisa McGhee, who lives in the apartment complex, told KABC. “It’s kind of scary because there’s no security onsite 24 hours. Management is never here when things happen. The cops are in there constantly. So it’s not a surprise.”It is unknown whether the suspect is a patient.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.